1585-1586 - Richard Grenville Plants the First Colony on Roanoke

According to Richard Hakluyt in England, the island that Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe described hidden behind the barrier reefs was in the perfect location for Ralegh’s new settlement. Hakluyt had always maintained that the best settlements would be between 40 and 43 degrees north latitude with a climate like that of Spain and Italy. He and Sir Ralegh will spend the next year preparing the first group of planters for settling the island. They planned a military colony of all men overseen by a president, not a self-sustaining plantation like the Massachusetts Bay Colony will be.

But in February of 1586, the Queen forbade Ralegh from commanding his own expedition. To take his place, both as General and Admiral, Ralegh elected Sir Richard Grenville, who by that time had been knighted for his services against the Catholics.

It had been twelve years since Grenville submitted his proposal to Queen Elizabeth to explore the Southern Seas. Within three years of giving up his project, he had moved to a beautiful abbey that his father had purchased in 1541 called Buckland Manochorum. Conveniently located just ten miles north of Plymouth Harbor and within sight of the Cornish hills, in 1576, he remodeled it into a castle. [It is still a beautiful building]. His improvements included the addition of a magnificent great hall with a plaster ceiling decorated in exquisite rib-work and pendants – typical of Elizabethan manors.

Buckland Manochorum Abbey in 1825.(1)

During the following few years, Grenville served as Sheriff of Cornwall. That meant participating in local efforts to ‘out’ the Catholics. Catholicism was becoming more popular. Many people were tired of Elizabeth’s Church of England and lapsing back to the familiar ‘Old Faith.’ An estimated 50 percent of England was Catholic, especially in the northern counties. That was in spite of Queen Elizabeth’s Act of Uniformity, enacted in 1571, that required everyone to be Protestant or face imprisonment and the confiscation of goods. One of the laws prohibited anyone from carrying symbols of the Catholic church, particularly prayer beads blessed by the Pope or the small ornaments of the figure of a lamb [Lamb of God] called ‘Agnus Deis.’ [These were similar to the tin ornaments we mentioned in the article about Jacques Cartier that the French Jesuit priests passed to the Canadian Indians](2).

The most important event was when Mayor Grenville arrested a Douai seminarian named Mayne, who had been quietly living in the house of the prominent Tregian family in Cornwall. [Douai University was in the catholic part of France near the Belgian border.] Accompanied by local soldiers, Grenville arrived at the Tregian home and, threatening with a dagger, demanded entry. His soldiers searched until they found Mayne hiding. They stripped him of his shirt expecting to find, as they did, that he wore an Agnus Dei ornament and had prayer beads in his pocket.

The soldiers hauled Mayne off to the gaol [jail] of a nearby castle. Grenville let Tregian off temporarily with bail, since he was a ‘gentleman.’ But he kept Mayne in prison. Upon further investigation, Grenville discovered that Mayne had obtained a Bull of Absolution from the Holy See [Vatican] and published it. For that crime, Mayne was condemned for treason and hanged, drawn, and quartered. For being an accessory, Tregian’s lands and goods were taken from him and he was sent to prison for life. The Church of England also condemned ten to fifteen of Tregian’s associates. The campaign virtually ended Catholicism in the west country, or at the least chased any remaining Catholics into hiding, and earned, in 1577, Richard Grenville a knighthood from the Queen.

In 1581, after Francis Drake completed the voyage that Grenville had hoped to make, Grenville sold Buckland Manochorum to him.(3) Drake installed the brand new coat of arms he received when he was knighted, over Grenville’s handiwork. The castle became his principal residence whenever he was in England. Today, Drake’s presence completely overshadows Grenville’s.

Drake’s coat of arms. The stars represent the two pole stars, one over the sea and one under. The Golden Hind rests on a globe, which is being pulled by the hand of God reaching down from the heavens.(4) The Latin “Sig Parvis Magna” translates to “Greatness from Small Beginnings.”

Richard Grenville pulled out of his involvement in Cornwall and concentrated on Devon. He had residences in both Stowe and Bideford. In 1583, while Humphrey Gilbert surveyed the North Atlantic, Grenville served on two committees of the Exchequer, which included consulting for harbor construction and repair. So, by the time Sir Ralegh chose him to lead the expedition to Virginia and set up a new colony, Grenville had earned the reputation for being the person to get things done. Grenville had never been on a major sea voyage. He had never crossed the open ocean. He owned ships, but had traveled only as far as Ireland on them.

Ralegh and Hakluyt chose Ralph Lane (c1532-1603) to act as the residing governor of the Virginia colony. Ralegh came to know Lane during their soldiering days in Ireland. He was a generation older than Ralegh and ten years older than Grenville. Historians have uncovered nothing about Lane’s parentage or education.(5) He fought the northern Irish rebels in 1569, was the Commissioner of Piracy in 1571, and was currently serving as an equerry [officer of the royal household who attended the royal family] of Queen Elizabeth. Possibly she had a say in Lane’s selection.

Grenville’s half-brother, John Arundel, will serve as master of one of the ships, and Grenville’s brother-in-law, John Stukeley, will accompany as a gentleman passenger. Another West Country gentlemen with the surname of Kendall was listed on the manifest. His presence will become important later.

John White will join the party once again to illustrate the flora and fauna, the native inhabitants of Virginia, and draft necessary charts and rutters. He also invested money as a ‘gentleman investor.’ By now he was a trusted friend of Ralegh’s.

Thomas Harriot will leave his office in Durham Place and join the explorers. He had been spending time learning the Algonquian language from the Indian princes Manteo and Wanchese, whom he will be escorting back to their homeland. Besides learning the vocabulary, Harriot studied the physical process of how the natives formed their sounds with their mouths so that he could develop a proper alphabet for recording their language. This enabled him to compile a glossary of their phrases and names. He will have other duties including assessing the soil and “dealing with the natural inhabitants specially employed.” He will keep track of nautical and weather data, ellipses of the sun, and plant specimens.

William Sanderson invested more money in the project, as did Queen Elizabeth’s ministers Francis Walsingham and Lord Burghley. Even the Queen, very uncharacteristically, invested her own money in the venture. She also loaned one of her ships, the Tiger.

Everyone hoped the explorers would find gold, silver, copper, and other “merchantible commodities”(6) that would give them a huge profit on their investment. They also expected income from privateering off the Spanish and the occasional Catholic French ships. [The greedy English will also raid French Protestant ships.]

There were several motives for this expedition besides establishing a military and naval base for attacking the Spanish.

  1. The investors wanted a place for England to send criminals and the starving poor to “clean up London’s streets.”
  2. They sought scientific data [hence John White and Thomas Harriot].
  3. And some of the investors were seeking a place that could serve as a Protestant base for spreading the “true religion”(7) throughout the New World.

Unfortunately, the vagueness of these goals caused uncertainty and confusion among the leaders. No one really knew what the colony’s primary functions should be.

Admiral Grenville’s fleet consisted of six ships carrying upwards of 600 men. [Only 107 men will stay in America when he returns.] The Queen’s Tiger served as the flagship, with Simon Fernandez serving as pilot. According to a Spanish report, she was galleon of around 200 tons burden. She was well armed with two tiers of artillery on each side and many other firearms. She held about 160 men including the admiral, the other gentlemen, the sailors, and the soldiers.

The same Spanish report described Admiral Grenville as a “very distinguished person(8) … a man of quality, for he was served [at meals] with much show on vessels of plate [silver] and gold in the company of many servants playing musical instruments while he ate.”

Two of the ships belonged to Walter Ralegh. He placed Captain John Clark in command of the Roebuck, a 140-ton flyboat [pinnace]. And [historians suspect] he gave Arthur Barlowe the command of the 50-ton Dorothy again. George Reymond took the helm of the Red Lyon at 100 tons. Twenty-five-year-old Thomas Cavendish commanded the Elizabeth at 100 tons, and probably owned her. [Cavendish did not leave on his trip to circumnavigate the globe until July 21, 1586, right after he returned from this trip.] There were two pinnaces “for speedy service”: one towed by the Tiger, and the other towed by either the Red Lyon or the Roebuck.

The fleet departed in April of 1585. Five days out, as the ships passed Portugal, they hit a storm. Cavindish, and possibly Captain Reymond, were separated from Grenville in the Tiger and the other ships. One of the pinnaces was lost, including her crew of fifteen to twenty men.

Grenville was grievous at the loss of the pinnace, but he did not worry about Cavendish or Reymond. The captains had set up a contingency plan. If the ships separated while crossing the Atlantic, they were to meet up at the island of Puerto Rico in the Spanish dominions. Grenville was more interested in privateering than in setting up a colony. We do not know if he received a letter of marque for this from the Queen.

The Tiger arrived to Puerto Rico first. Grenville ordered his men to construct a small enclosure on the beach to protect themselves from the Spanish while they built a new pinnace to replace the one they lost in the storm. They gathered local wood for the planking, some of which was hauled from three miles inland. The fortress was within “a falcon shot of the shore.” A river ran by one side, and the other two sides were “environed with woods.” According to the English, the Spanish knew what they were up to but “offered no resistance.” The interactions with the Spanish were friendly, “with partying and trading.”


John White’s sketch of Grenville’s Fort on Puerto Rico, 1586.(9)

John White’s sketch of the fort shows some of the features that will be typical of later colonies and forts. The Tiger stayed anchored out at sea. The pinnace was constructed where it could be pulled into the water. The building that looks like a wetu [American Indian house] is actually the forge the English built to make the iron nails for the pinnace. The men probably slept in safety on the Tiger. The walls of the fort, like redoubts, were formed with mounded dirt that had been dug from the trenches that surrounded the fortress like a moat. You will see this type of construction again in the article about the fort that the English build in Maine in 1607-1608.

According to Spanish records, while the English were in the West Indies, they pirated several ships. The Spanish thought the English were building the pinnace for use in sacking Spanish colonies.

It is possible that they were. Within a few months, Francis Drake will show up in the West Indies to do just that and ultimately start war again with Spain. It is most likely that Grenville’s real mission on Puerto Rico was to scout for Drake. Maybe he was even waiting for him. Remember, Drake and Grenville [who were about the same age, had recently completed a real estate deal, and were very distant cousins] had served together on the committee that approved Ralegh’s plans for the colony. Drake planned to raid the Spanish dominions and capture an expected Mexican plate fleet.

However, Francis Drake will be delayed in England and leave much later than expected. By the time he arrives to the West Indies, Grenville will have inadvertently alerted the Spanish of his coming. The Spanish will be able to divert their precious plate fleet, but they will be unable to prevent Drake’s destruction. This will happen several months later. For now, let us get back to Grenville.

When Thomas Cavindish finally showed up on the horizon off the coast of Puerto Rico, Grenville’s men thought he was a Spanish vessel. They were very happy to see he was not, and they were also very happy to see him. By the time the men finished building the pinnace, the rest of the fleet had arrived, except for Captain Reymond.(10) Grenville headed his ships north.

The fleet stopped in Hispaniola, where, according to the English, they were well received by the Spanish. The English traded for horses, mares, kine [cows], bulls, goats, swine, sheep, bull-hides, sugar, ginger, pearls, and tobacco, most of which they needed for the new settlement. [Note that ‘tobacco’ was on the list. Grenville is credited with being the first to introduce the herbal drug to his fellow Englishmen. Thomas Harriot later described how he smoked tobacco while in Virginia and after his return to England. “We have found many rare and wonderful experiments of the virtues thereof.”]

Grenville was heading for the eight-mile-long island inside the barrier reef that Arthur Barlowe and Philip Amadas had previously selected. Along the way, he and his men were amazed by how much fish they could catch. On June 20 the ships reached mainland Florida. They had some trouble rounding Cape Fear, but finally, on June 26, landed on the southern island of the barrier reef, noted as called Wokokon [Ocrocoke] on John White’s map below.


John White’s map of Pamlico Sound, Albemarle Sound, and Roanoke Island, 1585 or 1586.(11)

Simon Fernandez tried to sail the Tiger through a breach [break] between the islands in order to enter Pamlico Sound, but she ran aground on a shoal. “The ship was so bruised and the salt water came so abundantly into her, that the most of her corn, salt, meal, rye, biscuit, and other provisions … were spoiled.” He ended up anchoring her a mile or so away from the reef offshore.

On July 3, Grenville sent Manteo to Prince Granganimeo, King Pemisapan’s brother, letting him know of the English arrival and that they would reach his island soon.

On July 6th, two of Grenville’s captains were exploring Croatoan Island [Hattaras] and came across two English men from Captain Reymond’s ship. Reymond had arrived ahead of the other ships and left thirty men on Croatoan Island twenty days earlier. Grenville spent the next two days transporting Reymond’s thirty men to his own base on Wokokon [Ocrocoke] Island.

The leaders and captains spent two weeks exploring the mainland and the mouth of today’s Pamlico River in the pinnace and various shore boats. They introduced themselves to the Indian villages of Pomejok, Secotan, and Aquascogoc, and were, at first, well entertained. But in Aquascogoc, one of the natives stole a silver cup and would not return it. Grenville ordered his men to burn down the village and spoil the corn. The villagers fled. They had lost their homes and their food. Grenville had lost his rapport with the locals.

On July 18 the English moved to Hattaras. Not until the 27th, did they reach the eight-mile island occupied by the Wyngina tribe, also known as Roanokes. Granganimeo went aboard Grenville’s pinnace accompanied by Manteo.

Grenville was happy with the island. He was mindful of Spanish ships ranging the coast, and so it pleased him that the island was in a protected and secluded position. He named the island Roanoke, the name of Chief Pemisapan’s tribe. And he named the settlement City of Ralegh after his patron.(12)

The English began construction immediately on a fort at the north end of the island. It probably resembled the structure Grenville supervised on Puerto Rico, only it would have been much larger. Meanwhile, Grenville explored and surveyed Albemarle Sound in the pinnace.

On August 5, Captain John Arundel departed from Roanoke for England. In his ship he carried letters from Governor Ralph Lane to Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Philip Sidney. Lane complained about Grenville. He thought the admiral was arrogant and bossy. However, he said that all was well with the colony. He described “the main to be the goodliest soil under the cope of heaven … and the climate so wholesome, that we had not one sick since we touched the land here. If Virginia had but horses and kine in some reasonable proportion, I dare assure myself being inhabited with English, no realm in Christendom were comparable to it.” The news pleased Queen Elizabeth so well she knighted John Arundel.

Thomas Cavindish was the next to sail for home. On August 25, Grenville and Simon Fernandez followed in the Tiger. Governor Ralph Lane remained in charge of Virginia as planned.

As Grenville and Fernandez passed the Island of Bermuda, they came across the Spanish galleon Santa Maria of San Vincente. She was the vice admiral of a fleet of thirty ships sailing from Santo Domingo to Spain. But two days after the fleet left New Spain, the ships were caught in a storm. The Santa Maria dropped anchor for the night [possibly in the shallows offshore from Bermuda, which is mainly coral reef] and waited out the winds. The next morning, she saw six or seven ships ahead of her but could not catch up with them. That is when Grenville spied her, like a week lamb straggling behind her flock.

At first the captain of the insufficiently armed Santa Maria thought the Tiger was part of his fleet. He slowed his ship to wait. When he realized his mistake, and that he was being pursued by an enemy ship, he tried ‘to fly,’ but Grenville out sailed him.

Grenville ordered the Tiger’s guns loaded and upon catching up to the Santa Maria, pounded her with shot. Her captain, fearing his vessel was about to go to the bottom of the sea, ordered his crew to take in her sails and lay to, realizing “there was nothing else to be done.” Grenville and his men boarded the Santa Maria and relieved her of her valuable cargo.

Being a responsible privateer, Grenville let the Santa Maria sail off for Spain, while he continued on in the Tiger. But when he reached Terceira Island in the Azores [home port of Simon Fernandez, who was Portuguese], he came upon the Santa Maria again. This time he was not so nice. He forced her crew to go ashore and took possession of the ship for himself. He sailed home for England in the Santa Maria, which was larger than the Tiger and into which he had reloaded much of the booty. Simon Fernandez sailed home in the Tiger, probably carrying the first shipment of tobacco that was ever transported from Virginia to England.

When Sir Ralegh learned of Sir Grenville’s arrival, he went to the dock and personally oversaw the unloading of the Santa Maria so as “not to allow [the loot] to be distributed among the sailors.” The spoils were inventoried to include: 40,000 ducats of gold, silver, and pearls; 100 tons of sugar; 50 tons of ginger; and 7000 animal hides.(13) They paid for the entire Roanoke expedition.

Back on Roanoke, Governor Lane was having difficulties with his colony. The City of Ralegh was run like a military base, not a community such as Plimouth Colony and the Massachusetts Colony will be, for which the colonists will work together for everyone’s mutual benefit. Lane had no leadership skills and did not understand the necessity of frugality when living in a frontier. When discipline broke down, things started falling apart. It was every man for himself.

Thomas Harriot later wrote that many men, after digging for gold and silver and finding none, “had no care for anything else but pampering their bellies.” They had “little understanding” of how to live in the wilderness, with “less discretion, and more tongue than was needful or requisite [i.e. they complained instead of worked].” Men who “were of a nice bringing up …only in cities or towns, having seen nothing of the rest of the world” found themselves not knowing how to manage in the wilderness. They became miserable after learning there were no English towns in America, nor any of the “dainty foods” they were used to, or the “soft beds of down and feathers.”

Things got worse when Granganimeo died. King Pemisapan was not as friendly to the English as his brother had been, and he had learned about Grenville’s mistreatment of the other nations. The chief gathered the powerful Indian tribes and told them that the English were trying to kill him. When the Indians withdrew from the English, they took their corn with them. The English needed to barter for food from the Indians. They had harvested nothing for themselves. They could forage for crabs and oysters and made a stew from their mastiff dogs and sassafras leaves. But soon they were close to starvation.

Lane thought he could take control of the island and force the Indians to give the English their food. He ordered his soldiers to attack the Roanokes. During the skirmish, Lane shot Pemisapan with a pistol. Pemisapan fell as if dead. But then he surprised everyone by rising again and running into the woods. An Irish man named Nugent ran after him. Nugent was more successful than Lane had been. When he returned shortly after, he proudly carried Pemisapan’s head.

Wanchese, one of the two Indian princes who had been taken to England, took over as the sachem of the Roanokes. [Historians suspect he was King Pemisapan’s son]. He declared the Roanokes to be enemies of the English.

Only a week later, the English saw a fleet of ships sailing toward them from the south. They assumed the ships were Spanish. Terrified, they prepared themselves for battle and stood ready. After several hours, a shore boat arrived and they learned that the fleet was English and under the command of Sir Francis Drake.

Drake had completed his mission in the West Indies. He had brutally and without mercy ravaged the Spanish colonies of Santiago, Santa Domingo, Cartagena, and Saint Augustine. In the process, he took on boatloads of booty. On his way home, he wanted to pay a friendly visit to Virginia and see how the English colony was doing. He had heard so much about it from his friends Ralegh, Grenville, and Hakluyt.

Drake anchored his ships beyond the reefs, where Ralph Lane rowed out to meet with him. When Lane informed Drake of the colony’s troubles, Drake offered the colony one of his barks, the Francis, two pinnaces, and four small boats. Furthermore, he loaded the Francis with victuals [food] for 100 men for four months and “all kinds of necessaries, hand weapons, boots, match, as well as artificers and masters to take them back to England if the need arose.”

That would suffice, thought Governor Lane. But no sooner had he and his men decided to stay in Virginia, than a wicked storm arose. Admiral Drake commanded his ships to put to sea so they would not wreck upon the reefs and shoals, including the Francis. When some of the fleet fled for England, the Francis fled with them.

Ralph Lane’s party panicked. They still had no food. Drake, who was still there, made them a new offer. He would provide for them a different bark and transport the entire company home.

The whole lot arrived in Plymouth Harbour on July 27, 1586 after being in America for one year. Richard Hakluyt recognized how cruelly the English had treated the Indians. He wrote that their “hasty departure was as if a mighty army of God had chased them away for the cruelty and outrages committed by some of them against the native inhabitants of that country.”

In the meantime, Sir Walter Ralegh had already sent a relief ship “freighted with all manner of things in the most plentiful manner for the supply and relief of his colony.” He was responding to John Arundell, who had reached England before Grenville. Ralegh’s ship sailed with the easterlies to the south, while Drake and Lane’s ships were sailing the westerlies to the north. The ships passed in the wind. Ralegh’s ship arrived at Roanoke within days after the planters had deserted in Drake’s ships. Ralegh’s captain searched diligently around the bay for the colonists. Discouraged after finding no one, he returned to England with the supplies still in his hold.

At the same time, Sir Richard Grenville was foraging for supplies for the Roanoke colonists. He came up with three ships that he filled with food and provisions. He did not know about Ralegh’s ships. And he did not know that Lane, White, Harriot and the colonists had returned to England. He prepared to head back to the colony in his three ships. It is possible he planned to stay in America for good because before he departed, he took an inventory of all his estates. [They included: his mansions and lands in Stowe; the manor in Kilkhampton and all its lands; tenements, hereditaments, etc. in the parishes of Kilkhampton, Stratton and Morwinstow; the manors of Wolston and Widemouth; the manor of Swanacott and lands in Week St. Mary [in Cornwall]; the manors of Bideford, Littleham and Lancras, with all lands in Devonshire; and the manor and island of Lundy. He had taken possession of Lundy when his father-in-law John St. Leger went bankrupt. Finally, Grenville assigned his son Bernard Grenville as his heir.]

The harbor master of Bideford recorded that in April, Admiral Grenville left in command of the Santa Maria “for Wyngan Decora.” The Queen’s Tiger and Ralegh’s flyboat, the Roebuck, accompanied him. The three ships were somewhat delayed at departure when the Santa Maria went aground on a shoal. It is possible that Grenville’s pilot was not accustomed to sailing Spanish ships. They arrived at Cape Hattaras fourteen or fifteen days after Raleigh’s relief ship departed for England. Some accounts claim Grenville found the settlement “desolate.” Another account claims he found no one except “the bodies of one Englishman and one Indian hanged.”

Richard Hakluyt reported that Grenville left fifteen men on the island with “all manner of provisions” meant to last two years. The provisions included four large guns and some small arms. The men were to stay on Roanoke and retain Ralegh’s possession of the land until another group of planters could be organized.

On Grenville’s way back to England, he kept an eye out for ships to plunder. At first he had no success. Meanwhile, a strange sickness gripped his crew. By the time the ships reached the Azores, thirty-four men had died. In spite of that, Spanish reports indicate that Grenville landed on some of the islands and spoiled the towns “of such things as were worth carriage.” They man-knapped some of the Spaniards to replace the crew who had died of the sickness.

Finding no treasure-laden ships to chase in the Azores, the English ships back-tracked towards Newfoundland to store up on fish and replenish their water supply. Luck improved on the final leg of their journey home. They captured three Dutch and two Spanish prizes before reaching Bideford in December. Once again, the bounty paid for Grenville’s and Ralegh’s latest efforts. [Up to that point, Sir Walter Ralegh had spent £40,000 on his American colonization program.]

Grenville had captured his own American Indian and brought him home with him. On March 26, 1588, the Indian was baptized in Bideford, and given the name Ralegh. Ralegh the Indian lived only one year in England. He died and was buried in April of 1589.

But before that, Spain declared war on England, partially because of the havoc Sir Francis Drake had caused in New Spain. The war will continue for the next three years until the English squash the Spanish Armada in 1588. Meanwhile, Sir Walter Ralegh will keep trying to plant a colony in Virginia.

Next article: 1586 Thomas Cavendish Circumnavigates the World

Notes

  1. Buckland Manochorum Abbey in 1825. Image owned by the County of Devon. {{PD-Old}} Public Domain. Image source url: http://www.devon.gov.uk/historicbucklandmonachorum
  2. Agnus Deis were figures of a lamb bearing a flag with the cross. In Elizabethan England, they were considered emblems of the Catholic Church. According to Wikipedia, “The Syrian custom of a chant addressed to the Lamb of God was introduced into the Roman Rite Mass by Pope Sergius I (687–701).”
  3. The sale went through an intermediary
  4. Image courtesy of Gettysburg College. Image source url: http://www3.gettysburg.edu/~tshannon/hist106web/site5/drake.htm
  5. According to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography by Sidney Lee. Oxford University Press, originally published 1885; republished 2004; 60 volumes and online.
  6. Merchantible commodities’ [sic] meant any item that could be traded for money.
  7. Both the Catholics and the Protestants claimed their religion to be the “true religion.” This author does not make any assertion.
  8. The description in Spanish was, “En su apeto del parecia hombre principal.” [In appearance he seemed a distinguished person.]
  9. Fort on Puerto Rice by John White, 1586. Held in the British Museum. [[PD-Old}} Public Domain. Image source Encyclopedia Virginia, http://blog.encyclopediavirginia.org/page/39/
  10. The record is not clear about when Reymound’s ship separated from Grenville’s fleet.
  11. John White’s map of Roanoke. 1585 or 1586. {{PD-Old}} Public Domain. Image source url: https://nativeheritageproject.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/fort-large-map1.png
  12. Today, the sound east of Roanoke island is called Roanoke Sound. The island south of this island is called Wanchese CDP [census designated place] after the Indian prince. The sound west of the island is named Croatoan Sound after the Indians living on the mainland and barrier reef. And the main town on Roanoke Island is named Manteo, after the other Indian prince.
  13. According to Spanish invoices that English records apparently omitted.